…. before there were refrigerators, rich Europeans dug holes at home and filled them with ice or snow to store food?

Besides this technique, many people would salt meats, because salt makes food lose water, and therefore prevents fungi or bacteria. This has never been an issue in Brazil because of its abundance of fresh fruits.

… Thomas Edison did not invent the light bulb?

He improved it and patented the idea. In 1809, Humphry Davy, an English chemist, created the very first electric light bulb. In 1879, Edison created the incandescent light bulb for sale with a carbon rod filament. Before that time, 100 candles had to be lit to have the light of a 60 w lightbulb.

…. few used silverware before the 18th century?

Noblemen and the poor used their hands to hold food before the fork, the knife, and the spoon were invented.

… before the 19th century, no one wore underwear?

Men and women did not use under garments. When they wore something under their clothes, it was usually loose clothing. Underwear, as we know today, are a recent creation.

… human waste was excreted over buckets, and urine and feces were thrown out on the streets?

The first toilet, a wooden seat with a disposal system, was invented in 1597. Since it was very expensive at the time, only a few could afford having it at home.

… when there was no heating, people used wood, coal, or straw to avoid feeling cold.

Sometimes, the poorest even slept in stables to keep warm.

QUESTIONS – level 3

1. Mark the correct option:
a. People already used silverware in the 19th century.
b. The toilet has been used since the Middle Ages.
c. The wealthy had access to more efficient techniques and equipment than the poor.
d. Lightbulbs were more efficient than candles.

2. Based on the text, what can we conclude about these inventions and our customs?


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